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If you manufacture a product which
contains polystyrene and are looking
to increase the flame resistance
properties of your product  in order to
give you a competitive edge then you
need to contact Advanced Polymer
Solutions regarding our patented
Chemical Grafting.
We will develop a customized  
formulation based upon your chemical
resistance specifications. patented
under your name. When reproducible
results are secured, the formulation is
adapted to large-scale production at

UL Testing - Flame Resistance Polystyrene

Flammability Specifications

UL 94 Flammability Classification Tests for Plastic Materials

UL 94 is the standard applied by the American Underwriters Laboratories for the testing of the flammability and fire safety
of plastic materials used in devices and appliances. The UL 94 HB (Horizontal Burning) tests the burning of a horizontal
plastic specimen and the most demanding UL 94V (Vertical Burning) tests the burning of a vertical plastic specimen.
Precise details of the equipment, conditions and test systems to be used can be found in the UL 94 standard.
he length of the test specimen is 5" (127 mm) and width 0.5" (12.7 mm). The test sheet cannot be more than 0.5 (12.7
mm) thick. Lines are marked on the sheet at the 1" and 4" locations. The sheet is fixed horizontally at one end and tilted
45 degrees in the direction of the width, as shown in the diagram. The burner used is adjusted so that it forms a 1" long
blue flame. The flame is directed at an angle of 45 degrees to the front edge of the plastic sheet so that about 1/4 of the
test specimen’s front edge is in the flame. The flame is applied for 30 seconds, after which it is removed. If the test
specimen burns to the 1" line before 30 seconds have passed, the flame is removed immediately. The test is carried out
on three test sheets.
the manufacturer's location. To provide ongoing support, APS can manufacture the final formulation in the desired
quantities and supply the manufacturer with a pre-mixed, ready to use coating, additive or adhesive.
Flame resistance polystyrene formulation can be added to the resin or developed as a coating.
Chemical grafting can increase the flame resistance polystyrene based upon your specifications.
With Ph.D. polymer chemists and a team of well trained scientists, APS is able to provide clients with expert solutions with
synthetic polymers and plastic products. Third party companies routinely use APT scientists and facilities for out-sourced
research projects.
Flame resistance_polystyrene
Application Methods

Most commonly used application methods:

Coatings are applied on the surface of substrates to
improve the functional properties and durability.
Conventional coatings need extensive surface
preparation for adhesion and need to build up
thickness for performance. Such is not the case with
APS' coating formulations. Most APS coatings can
be applied in one step with no or minimal surface
preparation. In addition, due to the chemistry of
APS' chemical grafting process, thinner coatings
can be used to achieve a higher degree of property
performance. Delamination will not occur due to the
chemical bond formed between the coating and the
substrate with some subsurface penetration
occuring through the use of molecularly small and
lightweight monomers.

Typical coating methods can be used such as dip,
spray, roll, flow coat, etc. APS coatings can be
formulated to be air dried, however, in the interest of
time, heat or some energy source (i.e., UV or
infrared lights) can be used.

APS can develop additives to incorporate into the
raw material/resin prior to extruding or molding. In
this case, the new properties will penetrate the
matrix of the material. APS chemists will adjust the
formulation to conform to the processing parameters
used by the manufacturer. Due to the molecular
bond formed by APS' process, the new properties
will not migrate and leach from the material over
time, even under severe conditions.

Laminates (Adhesives)
APS chemists have extensive experience in bonding
the same or different substrates together. Materials
that are difficult to adhere to are effectively bonded
with APS' process. Again, no or minimal surface
chemical attachment of one substrate to the other.
Consequently, substrate failure will occur before
adhesion failure. In addition, if two substrates with
different coefficients of thermal expansion are
bonded, an APS developed adhesive's bonding
action will not be affected. Such is not the case with
conventional adhesives which cannot withstand the
varying expansion and contraction of different

Application of all APS chemical grafting formulations
can applied at ambient temperatures and normal
atmospheric conditions
The Mechanism of Chemical Grafting

Advanced Polymer Solutions substrate activators have
the unique capacity of removing active hydrogens from
substrates and initiating the growth of polymer chains
at the site. By removing these hydrogens an electron is
removed forming a free radical. This free radical site
needs an electron to stabilize its site and will share the
electron with the present monomers forming the
chemical bond. The following represents the four step
chemical grafting process:

1)        Activation: free radical formation
substrate activator
MOH_________  MC*

2)        Chemical Bonding of monomers:
(CH2 — CH)n
x        x = functional group that changes with
each monomer and determines the property

3)        Formation of small polymer side chains: n =
chain length of monomers (same or varied)

4)        The reaction is then terminated with a specific
formulation ingredient so that all reactive components

Our monomers can be added to the resin or developed
as a
APS facility
Advanced Polymer Solutions New York
aps_chemical research
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(516) 621-5800 ‎
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