Testing: ASTM C1349-10, ASTM Falling Sand Test, ASTM Taber Abrasion Test
ASTM C 1349-10 Abrasion Resistance Polycarbonate
Advanced Polymer Solutions substrate activators have
the unique capacity of removing active hydrogens
from substrates and initiating the growth of polymer
chains at the site. By removing these hydrogens an
electron is removed forming a free radical. This free
radical site needs an electron to stabilize its site and
will share the electron with the present monomers
forming the chemical bond. The following represents
the four step chemical grafting process:
1) Activation: free radical formation
2) Chemical Bonding of monomers:
(CH2 — CH)n
x x = functional group that changes with
each monomer and determines the property
3) Formation of small polymer side chains: n =
chain length of monomers (same or varied)
4) The reaction is then terminated with a specific
formulation ingredient so that all reactive components
Our monomers can be added to the resin or
developed as a coating.
Chemical Grafting Adhesives
Forming a covalent bond between two different
substrates. Learn More>
Standard Specification for Architectural Flat Glass Clad Polycarbonate
Active Standard(Latest Version) Abrasion resistance polycarbonate
This specification covers the quality requirements for cut sizes of architectural flat glass clad polycarbonate (GCP) for use
in buildings as security, detention, hurricane/cyclic wind-resistant, and blast and ballistic-resistant glazing applications.
Architectural polycarbonates furnished under this specification shall be of the following kinds: Kind GCP, single core (SC);
Kind GCP, multiple core (MC); and Kind GCP, others (O). The polycarbonates shall be examined by means of the following:
security test; impact test for safety glazing; missile impact and cyclic pressure test; security glazing test; airblast loading
test; detention glazing test; bullet resisting glazing test; burglary resisting test; visual inspection; and transmittance test. The
materials shall also adhere to specified size and dimensional requirements, and maximum allowable blemishes in form of
bubbles, edge boil blow-ins, fuses, single strand lint hairs, inside dirt spots, areas of concentrated lint, delamination and
discoloration, short interlayer and unlaminated area chips, streaks and scuffs, white scratches, carbon specks, and crizzles.
1.1 This specification covers the quality requirements for cut sizes of glass clad polycarbonate (GCP) for use in buildings
as security, detention, hurricane/cyclic wind-resistant, and blast and ballistic-resistant glazing applications.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the
applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM Falling Sand Test 500 lbs. (Abrasion Resistance Polycarbonate) of sand is poured on treated surface, Results:
no noticeable chipping, peeling or wearing away of chemically bonded coating at <1 mil thick.
ASTM Taber Abrasion Test Federal Test Method Std. No. 141 using a CS 17 wheel, (Abrasion Resistance
Polycarbonate) a 1000 gram load at 70 rpm for 10,000 cycles. Results: no loss of coating at 51 mil thick.
Coatings are applied on the surface of substrates to
improve the functional properties and durability.
Conventional coatings need extensive surface
preparation for adhesion and need to build up
thickness for performance. Such is not the case with
APS' coating formulations. Most APS coatings can
be applied in one step with no or minimal surface
preparation. In addition, due to the chemistry of
APS' chemical grafting process, thinner coatings
can be used to achieve a higher degree of property
performance. Delamination will not occur due to the
chemical bond formed between the coating and the
substrate with some subsurface penetration
occuring through the use of molecularly small and
Typical coating methods can be used such as dip,
spray, roll, flow coat, etc. APS coatings can be
formulated to be air dried, however, in the interest of
time, heat or some energy source (i.e., UV or
infrared lights) can be used.
APS can develop additives to incorporate into the
raw material/resin prior to extruding or molding. In
this case, the new properties will penetrate the
matrix of the material. APS chemists will adjust the
formulation to conform to the processing parameters
used by the manufacturer. Due to the molecular
bond formed by APS' process, the new properties
will not migrate and leach from the material over
time, even under severe conditions.
APS chemists have extensive experience in bonding
the same or different substrates together. Materials
that are difficult to adhere to are effectively bonded
with APS' process. Again, no or minimal surface
chemical attachment of one substrate to the other.
Consequently, substrate failure will occur before
adhesion failure. In addition, if two substrates with
different coefficients of thermal expansion are
bonded, an APS developed adhesive's bonding
action will not be affected. Such is not the case with
conventional adhesives which cannot withstand the
varying expansion and contraction of different
Application of all APS chemical grafting formulations
can applied at ambient temperatures and normal
Frequently Asked Questions
Can Chemical Grafting impart desirable properties of an
expensive plastic onto a less expensive plastic?
Yes, the less expensive would then have the properties of a
more expensive plastic resulting in tremendous cost
Can Chemical Grafting work on any substrate?
No, although we have a vast array of activation monomers,
they cannot activate every substrate. Email us @
email@example.com for a complete list of
substrates which cannot be grafted.
Can my company patent the formulation once it is
Yes, you will own the formulation, we will assist in
obtaining your patent.
Are the formulations safe?
Yes, The ingredients in all APS formulations will be
completely safe, can be water based in many cases, and
will conform to OSHA, EPA and, if required, FDA guidelines.
Can a chemically grafted formulation be used to attach
two different types of plastic?
Yes, in this case two different types of monomers will be
used to activate the substrate. This application would be
used as a coating between the two substrates.
Can the formulation be added to ink?
Yes to improve adhesion to various substrates, glass,
textiles, etc. Also to impart desirable properties into the ink
such as scratch resistance.
Once developed can Advanced Polymer Solutions
manufacture the coating or additive?
Yes, we can manufacture the formulation in any amount to
meet your requirements.
When grafting onto metals is any heat source required?
No, our activation monomers will bond to the metal forming
a covalent bond.
If you would like additional information regarding our
patented chemical grafting process or would like to know
how chemical grafting can benefit your company,
email us: firstname.lastname@example.org
All information is strictly confidential, however prior to
releasing any information regarding your project to us, APS
will sign a non disclosure agreement.
Understanding the molecular
structure and nature of organic and
the key to APS' research our
chemists have detailed knowledge of
the following offers an infinite
APS' unique chemical grafting process results in
properties being permanently attached to the
substrate with the use of a specialized substrate
activator and monomer system.
Learn More >
- APS' assistance in analyzing and defining problems through their
understanding of the chemical and physical basics of all materials
and how they behave and interact;
- APS' unique patented molecular bonding method not offered by
other companies and unavailable in house, developed through
years of chemical research.
- APS' individually tailored approach to the most effective solution for
each client (not available at raw material suppliers);
- APS' collaberation with clients to form a cooperation that ensure
the best results and most acceptable implementation of the
chemical grafting process;
- Ability to concentrate on your core products and business activities;
- Exclusive, patentable formulation for you to gain a competitive
edge over competition with a more superior performing products
and decreased costs;
- Increased sales and ability to market your product into broader
- Molecular make up of substrates such as plastics, rubber,
wood, paper, glass, ceramics and metals.
- Method of activating substrates to form sites for attachment of
- Activity of functional groups on monomers and prepolymers
and how to combine them to provide new and unique
properties on substrates.
- Interaction of monomers and prepolymers and in linking them
together to form new polymer side chains.
- Combining all reactive ingredients to formulate easy to apply,
cost effective surface treatments, additives and adhesives.
- Upscaling chemically grafted formulations from laboratory to
pilot scale to full scale manufacturing using existing/minimal
- Production of these unique formulation, supervised by a Ph.D.
in polymer chemistry to ensure each shipment is quality
Advanced Polymer Solutions was formed by four technical professionals
educated and experienced in polymer and organic chemistry, research and
development and engineering. As a result, APS offers over 75 years of
combined expertise in offering custom solutions to manufacturers in the
areas of product improvement and high impact commercialization
solutions to reduce costs and eliminate hazardous materials.
APS' core business is to develop and
manufacture custom formulations for
product and commercialization
improvements and cost reductions,
therefore, is the ultimate technical
resource for manufacturers. Using this
innovative project approach, companies
can take advantage of:
|Why Advanced Polymer Solutions For
|Advanced Polymer Solutions
|Recent Polycarbonate Project
|Abrasion resistance on polycarbonate formulation can be added to the resin or developed as a coating.
Please note: While the Chemical Grafting process is the same for all plastics the grafting initiator, monomers and catalyst
are vastly different depending on the type of plastic and desired properties. Each project is custom tailored to meet our
Reserve your seat at our next Webinar
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Grafting and how it can be applied to your industry. Reserve Now >
We have successfully grafted such properties as abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, flame resistance, UV resistance,
oxygen and moisture barrier, increased structural strength, adhesion to other materials, and flavor barrier onto numerous
plastics such as Acrylic, Acetal, Acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS), Polyamide imide, Cellulose acetate, Cellulose
butyrate, Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), Kapton, Polyamide (Nylon),
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polybutadiene styrene (PBS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON), Polyvinylchloride
(PVC), Polyvinylacetate (PVA), Polyvinylidiene chloride (PVDC), Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOA), Polyetheramide, Phenolics,
Polysulphone, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN).
Contact us if you don't see your plastic or property listed.
The Mechanism of Grafting Abrasion Resistance Polycarbonate
Our clients come to APS for our scientific
expertise when the endeavor is enhancing an
existing product, improving manufacturing
efficiencies, or discovering a solution that
creates an innovative new product.
Our specialists have a deep understanding
of both raw materials and product processes.
Their focus is effective and efficient solutions
to help you reduce costs and generate added
Our innovations are based on effective and
efficient research & development. We help
hundreds of companies, ranging from
start-ups to Fortune 500 corporations, to
improve their materials and products. Our
work in interdisciplinary groups on innovative processes to ensure
long-term business success for our clients with chemically grafted
solutions for almost all sectors of industry. final formulation in the
desired quantities and supply the manufacturer with a pre-mixed,
ready to use coating, additive or adhesive.
Product Solutions: Tell us about the problem you are experiencing with your substrate or production process
and we will respond with solutions for your evaluation. Chemical Grafting can effectively reduce production cost.
Our typical response time is less then 48 hours.
Abrasion Resistance Polycarbonate